A substance known as “Substance P” activates pain in the central nervous system, and researchers have found that it has the opposite effect in other body parts, which may pave the way to new methods of pain control.
In a study by the by the Hebei Medical University in China and the University of Leeds in the UK, researchers found that Substance P makes nerve cells less responsive and excitable in the peripheral nervous system, which reduces sensations of pain. The authors noted that “this is in direct contrast to its role in the central nervous system, where it triggers very different signals, exciting neurons and so promoting pain.”
The study may shed light on the reasons why so many clinical trials of potential pain-killing drugs that targeted Substance P have been failures.
“We were really surprised by the results – Substance P is described in the literature as a molecule that gets nerve cells excited and promotes pain. But we’ve discovered a paradox – that in the peripheral nervous system it acts as one of the body’s natural painkillers and actually suppresses pain,” lead researcher Professor Nikita Gamper, from the University of Leeds, explained.
“This means that when drugs were used in trials to suppress Substance P’s action in the central nervous system, they may have also prevented it from acting as a painkiller in the peripheral system. So, although the drugs looked like they worked in the lab, when they moved to clinical trials, they failed,” Professor Gamper added.
Substance P works in the peripheral system by modulating the action of certain proteins that control the ability of pain-sensing neurons to respond to ‘painful’ stimuli. In particular, Substance P makes one type of these proteins extremely sensitive to zinc, so that natural trace levels of zinc in circulation are enough to dampen their activity and suppress the neuronal responses.
Professor Gamper stated that this discovery could open the door to new drugs that don’t have the negative side effects currently associated with stronger painkillers.
“Drugs like morphine hijack the body’s natural painkilling mechanisms, such as those used by endorphins, but because they act within the central nervous system, they can affect other brain cells that use similar pathways, leading to side effects such as addiction or sleepiness,” says Professor Gamper.
“If we could develop a drug to mimic the mechanism that Substance P uses, and ensured it couldn’t pass the blood brain barrier into the CNS, so was only active within the peripheral nervous system, it’s likely it could suppress pain with limited side effects.”
The study looked at the action of Substance P within nerve cells in the lab and in animal models, focusing on acute pain, but the researchers intend to look at its focused on acute pain, but Professor Gamper aims to look at its role within chronic pain as well.