Opinion: How to Talk to an Elected Official About Chronic Pain

Opinion: How to Talk to an Elected Official About Chronic Pain

By Rose Bigham.

(Rose Bigham testified before the FDA Public Meeting on Drug Development for Chronic Pain on Monday July 9. See a link to her testimony below. She shared the following with the National Pain Report this week)

I worked at Microsoft for 23 years and I loved it. In 2008 after 20 years there and 6 years of mysterious pain I finally got the diagnosis which would change my life and ultimately end my career: Spondylitis is a disabling auto-immune disorder where your immune system repeatedly attacks your spine and major joints (& other things) causing severe and constant pain. There is no cure.

Prior to 2008 I saw specialist after specialist to try to find out why my lower spine was cripplingly painful all the time, amongst other symptoms. Over time I had to give up kickboxing, hiking, doing triathlons, white-water rafting, and playing competitive volleyball 5 nights a week. I started taking long-term pain medication before I finally got my diagnosis, just so I could stay employed. I learned at the age of 40 that my condition will get progressively worse, forever, and will shorten my lifespan. I was taking the same dose of pain meds every day and seeing my pain doctor every few months. My insurance covered the doctor visits and my prescriptions, and I kept working at my high-pressure job at Microsoft for another 3 years. I stopped having hobbies or a social life as it took all my energy and regularly pain medications to get me to my job every day. And to survive the 7 major surgeries I had during those years.

Rose Bigham

Unfortunately, my symptoms kept getting worse and after a brief stint at Amazon I left on permanent disability leave, awarded SSDI benefits a few years later. My specialists and the SSA concur: My pain is terrible and intractable.

When ESHB2876 passed in Washington in 2010 I was now required to see a pain specialist, but now I had to see them frequently even though my condition never changes. It was an additional non-medically necessary doctor appointment every single month requiring absence from work. I continued the consistent dosage of pain medication which allowed me to keep working. As time went on, however, the “chilling effect” of these laws and the resulting provider fear made it increasingly difficult for me to get my medication despite my legitimately painful conditions and clean history.

When I became disabled in 2013 I lost my excellent employer health insurance. Now those monthly doctor visits and prescription refills have become EXPENSIVE with repetitive co-pays every month, especially on a fixed disability income. The pain meds are the only prescriptions which require non-medically-necessary doctor visits 12 times a year, and new prescriptions each month! My condition will never improve. There will be no miracle cure which will make my pain medication unnecessary. I’ve tried all kinds of interventional procedures, P.T., acupuncture, acupressure, mindfulness, biofeedback, yoga, aquatic physical therapy - all expensive. I was able to try all of those things when I was still earning income and because I live in an area where these services are available. People with lower income, less flexible careers, or in rural areas without these services do not have those luxuries.  Regardless:  No alternative therapies were effective at reducing my pain. The only thing that has ever proven effective is pain medication: opioids.

I have no history of misuse, have never ‘diverted’ my medication nor never asked for an early refill - ever. I have never failed a urine screen. Yet in January of 2015 my then-pain-doctor told me that he’d be rapidly decreasing my pain medication immediately to 1/3 of my usual standard dose - the stable dose that I’d been on for ten years. When I asked my pain doctor if my diagnosis had changed he said no.  My prognosis?  Also no.  Did I do or say something which led him to believe that my behavior was risky in some way? Absolutely not. My doctor had decided to lower my dosage dramatically - and quickly - because he’d heard that some other doctor he knew had been disciplined by the WA state Department of Health, and now my doctor wanted to ‘be under the radar’. Direct quote. And he would not discuss it. I would have no choice except overwhelming pain.

I was devastated. With the opioids I can sometimes be productive; can sometimes push the awareness of the constant, severe pain to the back of my mind and do laundry, cook meals, walk my dogs. Without the pain meds? I’ll be bed-bound. Unable to move. I’ll be 50 this year and I’m looking at decades needing full-time care, bedsores, no life at all.

I am aware of the addiction crisis and I’m horrified at the increase in people misusing these incredibly lethal street drugs like heroin and fentanyl, and those who would misuse the very prescription drugs which I now rely on. Bottom line is: more people are reaching for heroin to misuse these days than prescription drugs. And people like me are being shut out of appropriate, humane medical care. We must do more to combat the addiction and overdose crisis, we absolutely must. But I am not willing to be an unintended victim - collateral damage - in that war. And neither should the estimated 250,000 people like me in Washington state. And our providers should not be afraid to treat their patients.

Rose Bigham is Co-Founder of the Washington Patients in Intractable Pain, an affiliate of The Alliance for the Treatment of Intractable Pain

To see Rose’s testimony before the FDA Public Meeting on May 9 in Washington D.C. click here.

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Authored by: Rose Bigham

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I had Shingles on my forehead which affected my eye all the way down behind my ear. At the time I had no idea what happened. Then, the linear pattern of the scabs appeared and I was given Valtrex two days later. It was such horrible pain. My eye was swollen and I couldn’t see very well and the pain on my forehead continued. Then, I began having migraines on the other side of my head. I tried oatmeal, Emela cream, Capsain cream (stupid because it was near my eye), a back pain patch, I was taking 12 Ibuprofin, I was precribed Ampityptilin (SP), Lyrica, six weeks of physical therapy (the PT said nothing that he could do would help), TENS Unit, NOTHING HELPED! I was in so much pain. I was finally given Topirimate and told to see a Neurologist, which I did. The Neurologist gave me a nerve block which was the worst thing ever! I wanted to rip my skin off my face. I was screaming and crying waiting for the block to wear off, which took forever. The mention of Boxtox came up and I did not want another injection of anything after that nerve block. I was still suffering in pain from the Post Herpetic Neuralgia, so I also tried a synthetic narcotic, which did nothing. Then, my pain doctor found Opana ER, Oxycodone and Fioracet w/ Codiene and Topriamate and it was MAGIC. I was living pain free and took the medication when I was supposed to and the break through when needed, that is UNTIL THE CDC/FDA DECIDED TO INTERFERE AND TAKE OPANA ER OFF THE MARKET AND STOP PRESCRIBING THE OTHERS UNLESS A PATIENT IS IN LATE STAGES OF DYING. Now, I’m back to seeing a Neurologist for more wasted time and money, seeing my pain doctor every month for nothing except for him to talk to me and take my money and give me prescriptions for nothing that works and see me again next month for more wasted money and time to pad his wallet for blabbering and I’m tired of it. I’ve gone down this avenue before and I’m tired of it. My eye is permanently swollen, no DR. seemed concerned about my vision, no DR. was concerned about my hearing. Only concerned about the narcotics and about the opiates, THAT’S ALL. Nothing about my pain, nor controlling my pain. Only about making money, taking money, writing scrips for meds that do nothing except something like over powerful Ibuprofin which didn’t work for me and to add more doctors to my life. I’m tired of it. I had relief after years of trial and error and it’s back to square one again. I was even told to have my skull cut open! DISGUSTING!

Old Goat

This is inexcusable, but also all too common and its happens everywhere, not just Washington. I have to ask what more pain patients and their doctors need to do in order to show we are not the problem. No one seem to acknowledge the amazingly low incidence of pain patients that become addicted (0.27% -2% depending on source). Likewise it seems to be ignored that 80% of overdoses are from fentanyl and heroin, and over 80% of those people had pre exisiting histories of substance abuse. Forgive me for resorting to government tactics, but taking in to account most addict lie and none want to take responsibility for their addiction the rates are likely much higher than that. I could quote so many more statistics from unbiased sources that point away from doctors and patients, but perhaps the one that should be the biggest flashing neon sign telling the government this is no medical problem is opioid prescriptions being at an all time low while opioid deaths are at all time high and still growing. How does this justify the campaign of terrorism against people in pain and their physicians? Hasn’t taking cues from groups like PROP caused enough damage to everyone? In 2016 an article in Psychology Today estimated the number of suicides from chronic pain at around 20,000 per year. And again using the government’s powers of supposition, it’s a certainty that after the CDC guidelines that number has increased dramatically. How many more pain deaths are required before someone declares an epidemic of untreated pain? The numbers probably exceed abuse related deaths already, so how many more do we need before somebody who can make a difference gives a damn?




I tweeted your response since it was so well said I also asked them to present the other side since human rights took this on as a hot topic I did not know about Washington alliance chronic pain I am so empathetic it sounds like my story CVS dropped me without warning and when I said if I go into withdrawal or severe pain I would
Have my kids get a lawyer and sue for wrongful death if it drove me suicide So I was told since I used word lawyer they would not talk to me or fill any of my prescriptions anymore ( I have a Dopamine Parkinson’s like dystonia) So no act of concern sluice remark
However I read there policy they could fill and while I was on phone corrprut office two policemen show coincidently at my door wanting Hall me in I gave them my therapists name and he specializes in chronic loss Then next day or evening two 20 someyearolds show up no name tags with credentials would not let them in told me about crisis line and had the audacity to recommend cannabais I am ok on what I am on except a abscess from IM Benadryl because of Sinemet severe vomiting and it helped rigid legs two surgies now can not use it Husband of almost 25 years a fellow oncology / bmt.
RN separated only for insurance but loose it January and I am scared I would love to know about the Washington alliance also new Midwest and south were of concern most did not know human rights fell WA a priority. Those UW doctors started this their pain clinic won’t provide. Opiates for chronic pain and why would surgery trauma painful inpatient situations not have enough pain meds IV makes nobsince and this is human torture and an ADA hate crime issue I wish a good lawyer would take on a class action lawsuit Hope hear from you

Curt Hartman

You cant even trust the streets i got friends who went there,only to be sold fake pills,this is our government letting drug dealers run ramped, while we get punished for being honest ,cp is no joke,im disabled and have been cut back to 30mg a day this is not being treated but a sin. God help us all


I thank you for mustering up the strength and fight the pain and testify and write this article for everyone.

I fell three stories at work as the small business owner I was uninsured for this kind of accident had it been one of my employee’s they would have been fully covered small construction companies simply could not afford that kind of insurance back 30 years go when I fell and nothing has changed it still cannot be afforded if a small company wants to stay in business and compete.

Okay that being said when I fell I had 81 broken bones and several compound factures. I nearly died many times many times, skipping all the details obviously I made it but not without many artificial parts, many many surgeries and average around four surgeries every year. Now I can add severe psoriasis, psoriactic arthritis, epilepsy etc am sure you get the picture.

My worst fear is becoming a patient being denied the meds I simply cannot live without yes opiods like so many others I have never failed a drug screening or pill count yep I have been called and required to bring my meds in to be counted and urine screened never not one time have I ever even been a questionable patient yet my worst fear is this so called cracking down opiate war “what is the real truth our military is protecting an opiate field in another country I won’t name because it doesn’t matter another fact the cdc counts herion/fentanyl overdoses are counted as opiate deaths I am sorry but these deaths do NOT count they are unlawful use of drugs yet we the real patients are suffering from this bs.

If mine are taken from me it’s a death sentence for me and I am sure many others. I personally do have a plan in place to fight one last time for others if I become a victim of this so-called opiate war. I simply do not believe we know the real facts and truth behind the opiate war, I absolutely agree that we must get this under control but not that the real patients expense and loss of life it isn’t our fault others are using and abusing!


Thank you so much for representing us. I am between doctors right now and I asked my doctor what will happen when I switch because he knows my case. He did advise me that they may review because I’m on two quick acting narcotics. I’ve been on this regime for years. I’ve never abused, like you, never requested early refills, etc. I have legitimate illnesses. I’m scared to death. If I have to I will get involved legislatively however I can. A blanket law isn’t right for everyone.

S Gray

My world began to collapse November 2016 when Kaiser decided to stop prescribing opiates for severe chronic pain issues I have had for years. I was unable to walk for more than 10 yards without holding my back in pain. They set me up with a bogus Chronic Pain program which did nothing to relieve pain, only increasing my feeling of anxiety. I was told that I was old that pain was going to persist and I would have to live with this for the rest of my life. I have tried boosting my ibuprofen dose to unhealthy levels, tried expensive acupuncture treatments, cortisone shots in my spine, physical therapy, and finally, different forms of marijuana including cbd and sativa which only succeeded in getting my so “stoned” I would just lay in bed next to a bowl of cookies.
My hope is that the medical community will come around with logical, fair way to help those who truly need help with severe chronic pain give us a true helpful alternative to agonizing pain, stop making it seem like a crime to get this relief so we can live productive lives again.

Misty Hoffman

Thank you so much for your testimony. I have been disabled and in severe pain since 2006 two weeks after giving birth when I fell and crushed my spine due to MS flared by infection in a c section incision. My medication is going to be taken away as my pcp dropped pain care and the pain specialist is now scared too. Ive tried every non narcotic pain relief method available. Without opiates I am bedridden and will have to end it, as much as I don’t want to leave my beautiful son and husband. I feel like the government cares more about the illusion that they’re stopping addict deaths than the reality that innocent legitimate pain patients are committing suicide because of the severe pain. This is inhumane.


Thank you for sharing your story and for taking the time and making the effort to represent us to the FDA. I watched video of your testimony on YouTube. I also live in Washington state but at the southern end near the Portland Oregon border. I have been in the same position as you with my pain management doctor forcing me to taper my medications even though I have been a 100% compliant patient for many years. I have had chronic low back pain for close to 30 years and never once done anything wrong, asked for early refills or failed a drug screen yet after a spinal fusion that has left me with more pain than I had prior to my surgery I am being forced to taper. This leaves me with few options and none of them are very good. I am grateful that opioids help my pain but I have extreme anxiety every month when I have to get refills knowing that it may be the last time. I pray your efforts help our government to see the light. Thank you again!


I thank you for testifying for us, in fact, all who suffered to testify are hero’s in my book.

Posted talking the political line of heroin comes from prescription abuse….well darlin, it sure as hell wasn’t MY prescription! Soooo I am being tortured why?


Excellent post. You all are not alone. Same issue here. I refer to myself among close friends as a “lab rat”, as the government crackdown has kicked so many of us out of what was considered good, effective care. Grade 3 (full muscle tear apart) in my calf in Afghanistan 2010. Nerves severed. Compartment syndrome hindered the healing. Now 3 surgeries to clear the scar tissue off the nerves and repeated fasciotomies. Norco ceased immediately when the crackdown began. Insurance denied coverage for it, and the pain docs “fire you” by nicely saying “There’s nothing more I can do for you”.

In my state, if a patient accidentally or intentionally OD’s, regardless of intent, the prescribing doctor gets charged with Murder 1. That stopped it all, even for those of us in pain. Then the “off-label” game began. Anti-epileptics, SSRI’s, SNRI’s, TCA’s. Had an almost hospitalization-level reaction to an SNRI, and told the doc’s ENOUGH. Now I cannot ever take an SSRI or SNRI again. Thanks for burning that bridge!

Down to the last straw - had to endure Ketamine infusions and a hellish 3-day high-dose surgical “Soak”. It worked, but the dissociation was hellish torture. I wish they had just left me alone with the low dose NORCO because more damage has been done by the “experiments” with “off-label” meds, in addition to over $3000 for the ketamine (Not covered by insurance).

I was lucky to be in the 10% who responded well to the Ketamine, but it was truly torture. If your life has been butterflies and unicorns, you’ll have a great time. I did 5 combat tours, so can you imagine what it was like for me?


Excellent article.
Thank you for representing ligitimate pain patients.

Cindy R

I am surprised you were able to get opioid pain medication at all! In 1990, I was rapidly tapered to one - quarter of the dose of Tylenol 4 I had taken for over a decade, and had to move to another state to get the meds that let me function, although by that time I was unable to work even part time.
I believe the psychological approach of the UW Pain Clinic is responsible for most of the med phobia in WA state. Archives of the Seattle Times should give you background.
I’m sorry you’re having to endure this kind of treatment. Thank you for this article, and for your testimony at the hearing

Thank you, Rose Bigham.

Joanna Pinne"Cra

I would like to point out something that I can attest to first hand, being a Canadian. CANADA DOES NOT TREAT ITS CHRONIC PAIN PATIENTS ANY BETTER THAN THE U.S.A. We have ‘guidelines’ which mirror the CDC’s, in place in every province. The situation is every bit as dreadful here. Please do not have some kind of idealized version of Canada as regards this issue. We are just as much under the thumb of virtue-signalling politicians and retentive all powerful bureaucrats as anywhere in the US. I am sorry to have to post something ‘negative’ - but this is the reality here in Canada - same as y’all are facing!

Vesta Ard

I am so glad that you printed this article by Rose. I listened to the entire six hours of the FDA hearing. I had my fourth major surgery in 18 months 10 days prior to the meeting.
I was most impressed with Rose’s testimony before the FDA. Thank you for providing a copy of it. My husband and I have been very politically involved and made a huge impact, both locally and state-wide, in Alabama in the last 25 years.
I have been unable to be involved much lately but I know most of the elected officials in our state and our US representatives. We have been involved with them in political functions.
I have every intention of meeting personally with our Govenor and US representatives and all of my state representatives about this chronic pain issue. That is when I can stop having surgeries long enough.
I am happy to see some information about how to best present this issue. I am accustomed to public speaking and I am accustomed to dealing with elected officials. I have assisted with many facets of politics in my state. So I would be happy to see even more articles on this subject. Pivotal points for contacting elected officials would be appreciated.
I also have diagnoses of retractable multisystem painful chronic health problems. I also was forced to quit my job as an RN and use my Disability Insurance. I also have had my pain medication that was working well lowered solely because of the new guidelines.
This must change and this will change!
Thank you for every chronic pain patient or support person or professional that made great sacrifices to be at the meeting.


I read this testimony and it brought tears to my eyes. I am 65 years old a military and police veteran receiving wounds and traumatic injuries for years. I have seen one dr used one pharmacy, never misused my opiates went through computer checks to make sure of all of this Ben the new Michigan law o opiates took effect. My physician said the same things my condition has not changed it will get worse but he worries about being put under this huge political microscope by the state licensing agency so soon i think he will stop prescribing. Like the author, my days of semi ambulation will end. Ability to help with grandchildren over, able to simply walk around the block, over. This one’s jerk political response to an opiate problem of heroin and fentynal has left chronic pain patients as second class citizens and only 2% of overdoses are prescribed drugs an the age greater then 50 years old is minimal at best. I see no hope no change just continuing physicians turning their heads truly sorry but they have families to get and so you are no longer a patient. Pharmacies look down on you when you try to fill a prescription if you get it, they don’t have enough in stock because since the new law too effect, armed robberies of pharmacies as and will continue to increase, and many will turn to illicit drugs or simply commit suicide because the pain is to much to handle. To bad there is not a me too movement for chronic pain patients. Kjohns3452@aol.com

Rich Reifsnyder

Hello,I want to Thank all our Brothers and Sisters who suffered and took the journey to Maryland for the FDA Meeting on July 9.I am totally disgusted,how ignorant and disrespectful it is a few days after the meeting with the FDA committee AG Sessions put another limit on Opiod manufacturing with Big Pharma.If I have my math correct,from last year,that is 20%+25%=45% cut on Opiod Meds.plus what he cut a few days ago.As of now people can’t have surgeries because of shortages of IV Post Op Pain Meds and shortages of pain meds for Trauma Centers in our country.I don’t know if it is stupid,ignorant or the guy is uneducated.The DOJ own data is 1% of Opiods are being diverted,(from Grandma,s medicine cabinet)that means 99% of us CPP,S are responsible in safeguarding and taking our Opiod Medication in a responsible manner.And we all have pain contracts,subjected to urine tests,been treated like addicts,and been manipulated,harassed to get invasive ESI,which aren’t approved by the FDA,surgeries and other procedures done.And a lot of CPP,S stated if you don’t get these invasive procedures the doctor won’t prescribe you your pain meds any longer.This is totally out of control now.It all started with the CDC fictitious lies on Opiod OD Deaths where they grouped heroin and fentanyl OD Deaths as Opiod Medication Deaths.The 1% is OD Deaths caused by Heroin and Fentanyl coming from China through Mexico.AG Sessions has to know the 1% is not being diverted from Grandmothers Medicine cabinet,it is the Heroin and Fentanyl coming from China through Mexico that is causing all the OD Deaths,not us closely monitored,responsible Chronic Pain Patients.It is getting so bad hospitals have to cancel surgeries because of shortages on IV Post Op pain meds and shortages at Trauma Centers in the US.We should just look at what Canada did with this torturous Inhumane suffering of chronic pain patients,it was real easy.Government get out of playing Doctor and let (Doctors with their education and discretion treat Chronic Pain Patients like they did before the CDC listened to the lies from PROP,S Dr Kolody and his self interest in addiction centers.Govt.stay out of playing Doctor and leave our doctors alone to treat us properly and humanly like Canada treats it’s Chronic Pain Patients.Of course Canada has a lot of common sense and can admit when it has made a mistake unlike the USA 🇺🇸

Maureen M.

Dear Rose, Bravo! Bravo! You did an excellent job at presenting your issues (and ours), your condition and how the FDA/CDC have wrongly effecting your (and our) life!!
I feel for you. I suffer from the same illnesses an have gone through a similar journey.
Thank you for taking Prednisone (which is not always good to our ill bodies) and for showing up, at that meeting, for all of us and speaking boldly, strongly and God Willing effectively.
I imagine that none of it was easy on your body but know that I am so very proud of you.
Keep strong and hang in there!! Something MUST change on our behalf!!
Please God, help turn things around for us. This nation has done so much wrong to its’ people. Maureen M.

Robert Stelzl

I’m sorry for your situation and for all of us in the same boat. I, too, am going through the very same thing with my doctor. I intend to tell him that if I do decide to end this painful life of mine that it is fully on him. I want him to know what he is responsible for. These doctors do not have the courage to fight for their patients.if more of them believed in their own oath,
“Do no harm “, than we’d at least have a fighting chance. So sleep well doc! Tell him that…

Aimee Dexheimer

“Bottom line is: more people are reaching for heroin to misuse these days than prescription drugs.” She couldn’t be more wrong. Go to a narcotics anonymous meeting or pills anonymous meeting, your eyes will be opened. People just don’t start using heroin one day. It starts with a opioid prescription.

David Cole

With the CDC admitting they’ve over counted RX opiate related deaths by 50% and their own researchers saying is probably higher than that, considering the fact that they counted everybody that had an opioid in their system as an opiate related deaths regardless if they died of benzos or a combination of other 10 medicines or they were 90 years old with a heart condition and died. Yet all government agencies are still using those guidelines. This is nothing but a Despicable display of ignorance. Intractable and chronic pain patients we’re not the ones dying of an OD they are not the ones abusing their medication. This is what happens when you let 10 addiction specialist right recommendations for pain patients. We won’t torture terrorist in this country but will torture are disabled, elderly and Wounded Warriors for 1% of the population. And what does this say about Dr,s, I’ve had two of them flat out lie to me, they turned into nothing but lying cowards. I guess they just think we’re too stupid to read the guidelines ourselves. I’ve got a letter written back to me from the CDC specifically saying they do not recommend Forest tapering, that they are recommendations for primary care physicians and are not a law. As far as I’m concerned there are some people in high places that need to go to jail. AG Dr Jeff [edit] sessions needs to be fired, he has an agenda, his son died of an overdose of illegal drugs not prescription drugs.
I’d like to send Rose Bigham a big warm hug and a thank you from the bottom of my heart for making the trip to speak with the FDA on the behalf of yourself and pain patients alike. Hopefully they will listen and can do something about all the other government agencies hell-bent on torturing us.


Thank you for sharing your story, and for posting the link to your testimony. It is an all-too familiar story. Good luck to you.

Pam Jones

I’m so sorry you are suffering. I completely understand. I live in Washington state and have been looked upon as a drug seeker and addict. Yesterday, I saw a new doctor who didn’t want to hear my almost 18 years of medical history with CRPS, fibromyalgia, muscular dystrophy, migraines, DVT’s and embolisms and on and on. Within the first few minutes he had already made up his mind I was there for a fix. He saw pain medication and said was “good luck finding someone to write your scripts”. I wasn’t there for pain medication and was in complete shock! The suffering have been so stigmatized that we can’t get the care we need to live with some semblance of peace and the medical community has been told by big gov to prejudge us. No more “what’s your pain level”, no more compassion, no more treatment.

Cary Cassell

With the names of the names of the employers and the disease different, this IS my story.
How is that with so many formally productive upstanding members of American society having told their own elected officials THEIR same story absolutely NOTHING is being done ?
Without question we are clearly being discriminated against according to our own governments ADA policy . I simply do not understand why there has been no class action lawsuit against the government, health care providers and any other entity effectively denying hundreds of thousands of people with disabilities a chance at a semi normal life . Clearly I don’t understand the legal processes as I think this would have been a no brainer guaranteed win.
What I do understand is a life of constant pain and suffering is now my norm and everything I’ve ever been taught about to affect change has not is not working at all. I also understand time is quickly running out for me on this issue and like the author of the article my prognosis is only getting progressively worse with each day.


Collateral Damage. This is the exact element, we who have documentation for chronic intractable pain, have become
Thank you, Rose.
How can this abomination continue?